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Modern Civil Rights Movement - Key Moments

1. Post WWII: Returning WWII veterans refuse to accept second class citizenship; Jackie Robinson integrated into modern major league baseball, 1947.

2. Rosa Parks: In 1955, ignites a bus boycott by refusing to move from her seat on a segregated bus in Montgomery, Alabama.

3. SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) founded in 1957 to organize southern blacks and mobilize the black vote.

4. Ella Baker: A veteran civil rights activist who had worked with the NAACP became iterim director of SCLC in 1957 and helped establish SNCC; symbolizes the significant role women played in the civil rights movement.

5. SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee): Feb 1, 1960, four black students from North Carolina A&T College staged a sit-in at Woolworth's lunch counter igniting a movement by college students across the South.

6. CORE (Congress of Racial Equality): James Farmer founded this group in 1942, held "sit-downs" in the 1940s to integrate facilities; in 1961 CORE initiated the Freedom Rides to desegregate interstate bus travel and bus terminals.

7. Birmingham Campaign (1963): SCLC joined the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights to desegregate accommodations; media attention covering the use of fire hoses and police dogs by city officials galvanized the nation and helped bring about the 1964 Civil Rights Act that disallowed discrimination in public facilities.

8. March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (1963): mass demonstration to force the U.S. government to urge economic advancement as well as civil rights for blacks.

9. Freedom Summer (1964): civil rights organizations united to register voters in Mississippi and challenge the regular Democratic Party delegates sent to the Democratic National Convention.

10. Selma Campaign (1965): Protesters marched from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, to dramatize the need for federal government involvement in guaranteeing voting rights for blacks; helped bring about the 1965 Voting Rights Act that cleared away the remaining obstacles (such as literacy tests) to black people's right to vote.